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Milestones of SAMUM
The first phase of SAMUM is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects in the source region. After one year of preparation of experimental methodology a first joint field campaign will take place at Zagora, Morocco in 2005 to create the experimental data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information. This data set will provide the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust.
The first phase of SAMUM is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects in the source region. After one year of preparation of experimental methodology a first joint field campaign will take place at Zagora, Morocco in 2005 to create the experimental data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information. This data set will provide the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust.
By the end of the first phase of SAMUM (end of 2006) regional radiative forcing and updated global estimates of climate effects of Saharan dust will be provided.

The results of the columnar closure experiment in the dust source, and the developments of the regional dust model and of the satellite retrievals are necessary prerequisites for the second phase of SAMUM. The second phase will quantify for the first time the radiative effects of the mixed plume of Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosols as it leaves the source region. Important additional methodological developments will be necessary as well. Airborne assessments of the mixture of mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosols will require new instrumentation. The addition of a new spectrometer for the atmospheric window region in the IR to the aircraft payload will provide essential information on heating rates in the plume.
For the characterization of the mixed plume a second joint experiment is envisioned on Sal, Cape Verde in spring 2007 with the hope that CALIPSO then still will be operational. As in the source region, closure efforts will be made in the complex aerosol mixture of the polluted dust plume.
The critical development of feedback between diabatic processes and atmospheric dynamics will require major modeling efforts. Additionally, the coupling of a sophisticated multiphase model to the LM will enable cloud modification studies in the Saharan plume. At the end of SAMUM a realistic description of dust related aerosol processes and feedbacks would be provided with which global scale dust modeling will be improved. The aerosol/weather model developed in SAMUM can be adapted to other types of aerosols as well (e.g., light absorbing industrial pollution).